Helpful comments by Ademola Oyejide and Daniel Bach are gratefully acknowledged. Looking at the Horn of Africa, some find that it demands “not only a multilateral approach, but also an approach of multiple and overlapping multilateralisms”. Deep trade agreements are important institutional infrastructure for regional integration. Africa’s Regional Integration Arrangements History and Challenges Tesfaye Dinka and Walter Kennes1 September 2007 1 Tesfaye Dinka is with the Global Coalition for Africa and Walter Kennes is with the Development Directorate-General of the European Commission. 2. peaceful region by supporting both public and private sector actors engaged in the regional integration process. FIFA World Cup notwithstanding, the answer for now seems to be “not so well” In 2010, while it remains an issue of critical importance, racial integration in South Africa has no empirical reference point. However, success in this venture has been slow and marred by delay and stagnation. With no single agreed regional peace and security forum, none plays “the uncontested role of custodian of norms, forum for conflict management, and arbiter of disputes”. Africa’s Regional Integration Index is measuring an Africa on the move. The importance of regional integration is being felt across the continent, as evidenced by African leaders now calling for a free trade area by 2017. If efficiently designed, they can improve policy cooperation across countries, thereby increasing international trade and investment, economic growth and social welfare. Africa’s roadmap for regional economic integration In some cases, this can lead to confusion in terminology and on the state of regional economic integration of a specific bloc. More focused and gradual steps that are carefully executed at the domestic level may be the best place to start. of Africa’s development. Eastern Africa has the largest number of RECs and intergovernmental regional bodies in Africa. Since countries are free to negotiate regional economic agreements as they wish, in practice, formal agreements rarely fall neatly into one of these five stages. Regional integration is a development priority for Africa. Regional integration efforts, however, need to go hand in hand with competitiveness-enhancing policies as explored in other parts of the Africa Competitiveness Report. The African Economic Community (AEC) is an organization of the African Union states. Africa’s challenges call for pragmatism and a sense of urgency in action. In Southern Africa in particular, with its comparatively small economies, r egional integration was meant to play a For regional integration in Africa to be a success, Africa’s leaders will have to move beyond grand gestures and abstract visions. Several regional agreements function as pillars of the AEC: 43. It is tracking the data that is driving Africa’s economic growth now and in the years to come. They reduce trade costs and define many rules in which economies operate. South-Sudan, recognized by the African Union (AU), has indicated its commitment to be an active player in regional organizations. Signed in 1991 and implemented in 1994, it provides for a staged integration of the regional economic agreements. This is partly a function of the fact that, in 2009, President Jacob Zuma refused to entertain the idea of a […] 3. The AU is therefore expected to act as the primary vehicle for the advancement of regional integration, and for the promotion of Africa’s integration into the global economy. Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA Overview of Recent Developments Lolette Kritzinger-van Niekerk Emmanuel Pinto Moreira December 2002 The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s). Middle East and Africa: AEC. 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